Evolution of the motor vehicle

1860 The Frenchman Lenoir constructs the first internal-combustion engine; this powerplant relies on city gas as its fuel source. Thermal efficiency is in the 3% range. 1867 Otto and Langen display an improved inter- nal-combustion engine at the Paris Interna- tional Exhibition. Its thermal efficiency is ap- proximately 9%. 1876 Otto builds the first gas-powered engine to uti- lise the four-stroke compression cycle. At virtu- ally the same time Clerk constructs the first gas- powered two-stroke engine in England. 1883 Daimler and Maybach develop the first high- speed four-cycle petrol engine using a hot- tube ignition system. 1885 The first automobile from Benz (patented in 1886). First self-propelled motorcycle from Daimler (Fig. 1). 1886 First four-wheeled motor carriage with petrol engine from Daimler (Fig. 2). 1887 Bosch invents the magneto ignition. 1889 Dunlop in England produces the first pneu- matic tyres. 1893 Maybach invents the spray-nozzle carburet- tor . Diesel patents his design for a heavy oil- burning powerplant employing the self-igni- tion concept. 1897 MAN presents the first workable diesel engine. 1897 First Electromobile from Lohner-Porsche (Fig. 2). 1913 Ford introduces the production line to auto- motive manufacturing. Production of the Tin Lizzy (Model T, Fig. 3). By 1925, 9,109 were leaving the production line each day. 1916 The Bavarian Motor Works are founded. 1923 First motor lorry powered by a diesel engine produced by Benz-MAN (Fig. 4). 1936 Daimler-Benz inaugurates series-production of passenger cars propelled by diesel engines. 1938 The VW Works are founded in Wolfsburg. 1949 First low-profile tyre and first steel-belted ra- dial tyre produced by Michelin. 1954 NSU-Wankel constructs the rotary engine (Fig. 4). 1966 Electronic fuel injection (D-Jetronic) for stan- dard production vehicles produced by Bosch . 1970 Seatbelts for driver and front passengers. 1978 Mercedes-Benz installs the first Antilock Brak- ing System (ABS) in vehicles. 1984 Debut of the airbag and seatbelt tensioning system . 1985 Advent of a catalytic converter designed for operation in conjunction with closed-loop mix- ture control, intended for use with unleaded fuel. 1997 Electronic suspension control systems (ESP) . Toyota builds first passenger car with a hybrid drive. Alfa Romeo introduces the common-rail direct injection (CRDI) system for diesel engines. As of Advanced driver assistance systems , such as 2000 parking assistance, distance warning systems, lane change assistance.


Modern
Automotive Technology
Fundamentals, service, diagnostics
2nd English edition
The German edition was written by technical instructors, engineers and technicians
Editorial office (German edition): R. Gscheidle, Studiendirektor, Winnenden – Stuttgart
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Effect of zinc coatings, Materials for Automobile Bodies

In the author’s experience IZ shows a similar performance to mild steel sheet, the lubricity being enhanced slightly by absorption and retention of the lubricant in the fissures typical of the coating. IZ is notorious for appearing to be deficient in mill applied lubricant but coating weight tests suggest it is present, an effect attributed to the absorbent nature of the network of cracks. The natural tendency of the fissured structure is to powder and even flake – although recent modifications to the substrate (Nb/Ti now being preferred to Ti) and optimization of thickness (45 g/m2 recommended) have improved the tendency for ‘pimpling’. This effect, when zinc-rich particles deposit on the punch and are impressed through the sheet to give a shallow mound, only shows on painting or stoning which means a high number of panels requiring rework are produced before the defect is recognized. This is now less of a problem with EZ coatings as process disciplines, which reduce particle generation, e.g. use of side-trimmed strip, regular die cleaning and blank washing, have been progressively introduced. FLDs have also been constructed in an attempt to predict coating behaviour under various strain regimes. Reverting to coating lubricity, electrozinc coatings have been slightly beneficial but the press performance of drawn parts such as sparewheel wells and door inners has definitely been improved by the use of hot-dip coatings, although tools should be inspected regularly for signs of pick-up.
Materials for Automobile Bodies
Geoff Davies F.I.M., M.Sc. (Oxon)
Butterworth-Heinemann
An imprint of Elsevier
Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP
200 Wheeler Road, Burlington MA 01803
First published 2003

Jasa Interior Eksterior Design: Jasa desain resto taman

Jasa Interior Eksterior Design: Jasa desain resto taman